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The Oil

Vegetable/Spice/Herbs  oil is a triglyceride extracted from a plant. Such oils have been part of human culture for millennia. The term "vegetable oil" can be narrowly defined as referring only to substances that are liquid at room temperature, or broadly defined without regard to a substance's state of matter at a given temperature. For this reason, vegetable oils that are solid at room temperature are sometimes called vegetable fats. Vegetable oils are composed of triglycerides, as contrasted withwaxes which lack glycerin in their structure. Although many plant parts may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from seeds.

On food packaging, the term "vegetable oil" is often used in ingredients lists instead of specifying the exact plant being used.

Uses of triglyceride vegetable oil

Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures. As an example, in a 4,000-year-old "kitchen" unearthed in Indiana's Charlestown State Park, archaeologist Bob McCullough of Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne found evidence that natives used large slabs of rock to crush hickory nuts, then boiled them in water to extract the oil.

Culinary uses

Cooking oil

Many vegetable oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food – a role that they share with some animal fats, including butter and ghee. The oils serve a number of purposes in this role:

•                     Shortening – to give pastry a crumbly texture.

•                     Texture – oils can serve to make other ingredients stick together less.

•                     Flavor – while less-flavorful oils command premium prices[citation needed], some oils, such as olive, sesame, or almond oil, may be chosen specifically for the flavor they impart.

•                     Flavor base – oils can also "carry" flavors of other ingredients, since many flavors are present in chemicals that are soluble in oil.

Secondly, oils can be heated and used to cook other foods. Oils suitable for this objective must have a high flash point. Such oils include the major cooking oils – soybean, canola, sunflower,safflower, peanut, cottonseed, etc. Tropical oils, such as coconut, palm, and rice bran oils, are particularly valued in Asian cultures for high temperature cooking, because of their unusually high flash point.

Hydrogenated oils

Unsaturated vegetable oils can be transformed through partial or complete "hydrogenation" into oils of higher melting point. The hydrogenation process involves "sparging" the oil at high temperature and pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, typically a powdered nickel compound. As each carbon–carbon double-bond is chemically reduced to a single bond, two hydrogen atoms each form single bonds with the two carbon atoms. The elimination of double bonds by adding hydrogen atoms is called saturation; as the degree of saturation increases, the oil progresses toward being fully hydrogenated. An oil may be hydrogenated to increase resistance to rancidity (oxidation) or to change its physical characteristics. As the degree of saturation increases, the oil's viscosity and melting point increase.

The use of hydrogenated oils in foods has never been completely satisfactory. Because the center arm of the triglyceride is shielded somewhat by the end fatty acids, most of the hydrogenation occurs on the end fatty acids, thus making the resulting fat more brittle[citation needed]. A margarine made from naturally more saturated oils will be more plastic (more "spreadable") than a margarine made from hydrogenated soy oil[citation needed]. While full hydrogenation produces largely saturated fatty acids, partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to trans fatty acids in the oil mixture due to the heat used in hydrogenation. Partially hydrogenated oils and their trans fats have been linked to an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD)., among other increased health risks.

In the US, the Standard of Identity for a product labeled as "vegetable oil margarine" specifies only canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, or peanut oil may be used. Products not labeled "vegetable oil margarine" do not have that restriction.

Industrial uses

Vegetable oils are used as an ingredient or component in many manufactured products.

Many vegetable oils are used to make soaps, skin products, candles, perfumes and other personal care and cosmetic products. Some oils are particularly suitable as drying oils, and are used in making paints and other wood treatment products. Dammar oil (a mixture of linseed oil and dammar resin), for example, is used almost exclusively in treating the hulls of wooden boats. Vegetable oils are increasingly being used in the electrical industry as insulators as vegetable oils are not toxic to the environment, biodegradable if spilled and have high flash and fire points. However, vegetable oils are less stable chemically, so they are generally used in systems where they are not exposed to oxygen, and they are more expensive than crude oil distillate. Synthetic tetraesters, which are similar to vegetable oils but with four fatty acid chains compared to the normal three found in a natural ester, are manufactured by Fischer esterification. Tetraesters generally have high stability to oxidation and have found use as engine lubricants. Vegetable oil is being used to produce biodegradable hydraulic fluid and lubricant.

One limiting factor in industrial uses of vegetable oils is that all such oils eventually chemically decompose, turning rancid. Oils that are more stable, such as ben oil or mineral oil, are preferred for some industrial uses.

Vegetable-based oils, like castor oil, have been used as medicine and as lubricants for a long time. Castor oil has numerous industrial uses, primarily due to the presence of hydroxyl groups on the fatty acid chains. Castor oil, and other vegetable oils which have been chemically modified to contain hydroxyl groups, are becoming increasingly important in the production of polyurethaneplastic for many applications. These modified vegetable oils are known as natural oil polyols.

Pet food additive

Vegetable oil is used in production of some pet foods. AAFCO defines vegetable oil, in this context, as the product of vegetable origin obtained by extracting the oil from seeds or fruits which are processed for edible purposes. In some poorer grade pet foods, the oil is listed only as "vegetable oil", without specifying the particular oil.

Vegetable oil fuel

Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel, which can be used like conventional diesel. Some vegetable oil blends are used in unmodified vehicles but straight vegetable oil, also known aspure plant oil, needs specially prepared vehicles which have a method of heating the oil to reduce its viscosity. The vegetable oil economy is growing and the availability of biodiesel around the world is increasing.

The NNFCC estimate that the total net greenhouse gas savings when using vegetable oils in place of fossil fuel-based alternatives for fuel production, range from 18 to 100%.


The production process of vegetable oil involves the removal of oil from plant components, typically seeds. This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent. The extracted oil can then be purified and, if required, refined or chemically altered.

Mechanical extraction

Oils can also be removed via mechanical extraction, termed "crushing" or "pressing." This method is typically used to produce the more traditional oils (e.g., olive, coconut etc.), and it is preferred by most "health-food" customers in the United States and in Europe. There are several different types of mechanical extraction.Expeller-pressing extraction is common, though the screw press, ram press, and Ghani (powered mortar and pestle) are also used. Oil seed presses are commonly used in developing countries, among people for whom other extraction methods would be prohibitively expensive; the Ghani is primarily used in Bharat. The amount of oil extracted using these methods varies widely, as shown in the following table for extracting mowrah butter in Bharat:

Solvent extraction

The processing vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by chemical extraction, using solvent extracts, which produces higher yields and is quicker and less expensive. The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane. This technique is used for most of the "newer" industrial oils such as soybean and corn oils.

Supercritical carbon dioxide can be used as a non-toxic alternative to other solvents.


Oils may be partially hydrogenated to produce various ingredient oils. Lightly hydrogenated oils have very similar physical characteristics to regular soy oil, but are more resistant to becoming rancid. Margarine oils need to be mostly solid at 32 °C (90 °F) so that the margarine does not melt in warm rooms, yet it needs to be completely liquid at 37 °C (98 °F), so that it doesn't leave a "lardy" taste in the mouth.

Hardening vegetable oilis done by raising a blend of vegetable oil and a catalyst in near-vacuum to very high temperatures, and introducing hydrogen. This causes the carbon atoms of the oil to break double-bonds with other carbons, each carbon forming a new single-bond with a hydrogen atom. Adding these hydrogen atoms to the oil makes it more solid, raises the smoke point, and makes the oil more stable.

Hydrogenated vegetable oils differ in two major ways from other oils which are equally saturated. During hydrogenation, it is easier for hydrogen to come into contact with the fatty acids on the end of the triglyceride, and less easy for them to come into contact with the center fatty acid. This makes the resulting fat more brittle than a tropical oil; soy margarines are less "spreadable". The other difference is that trans fatty acids (often called trans fat) are formed in the hydrogenation reactor, and may amount to as much as 40 percent by weight of a partially hydrogenated oil. Hydrogenated oils, especially partially hydrogenated oils with their higher amounts of trans fatty acids are increasingly thought to be unhealthy.


In the processing of edible oils, the oil is heated under vacuum to near the smoke point, and water is introduced at the bottom of the oil. The water immediately is converted to steam, which bubbles through the oil, carrying with it any chemicals which are water-soluble. The steam sparging removes impurities that can impart unwanted flavors and odors to the oil.

Particular oils

The following triglyceride vegetable oils account for almost all worldwide production, by volume. All are used as both cooking oils and as SVO or to make biodiesel. According to the USDA, the total world consumption of major vegetable oils in 2007/08 was:

Oil source World consumption

(million metric tons)


Palm             41.31   The most widely produced tropical oil, also used to make biofuel

Soybean       41.28     Accounts for about half of worldwide edible oil production

Rapeseed     18.24 One of the most widely used cooking oils, canola is a variety (cultivar) of rapeseed

Sunflower seed   9.91       A common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel

Peanut               4.82                                      Mild-flavored cooking oil

Cottonseed        4.99                        A major food oil, often used in industrial food processing

Palm kernel       4.85                        From the seed of the African palm tree

Coconut             3.48                                      Used in soaps and cooking

Olive                  2.84                       Used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps


Note that these figures include industrial and animal feed use. The majority of European rapeseed oil production is used to produce biodiesel, or used directly as fuel in diesel cars which may require modification to heat the oil to reduce its higher viscosity. The suitability of the fuel should come as little surprise, as Rudolf Diesel originally designed his engine to run on peanut oil.

Other significant triglyceride oils include:

•                     Corn oil, one of the most common cooking oils. As of 2006 the US produced about 1.09 million metric tons of corn oil, which is used for cooking oil, salad dressing, margarine, mayonnaise, prepared goods like spaghetti sauce and baking mixes, and to fry prepared foods like potato chips and French fries.

•                     Grape seed oil, used in cooking and cosmetics

•                     Hazelnut and other nut oils

•                     Linseed oil, from flax seeds

•                     Rice bran oil, from rice grains

•                     Safflower oil, a flavorless and colorless cooking oil

•                     Sesame oil, used as a cooking oil, and as a massage oil, particularly in Bharat

Composition of fats

Vegetable oils

Type             Saturated

               fatty acids


               fatty acids

Polyunsaturated fatty acids         Oleic acid

(ω-9)             Smoke point


Total poly

              linolenic acid

 (ω-3)           Linoleic acid


Not hydrogenated


Canola (rapeseed)

7.365           63.276        28.142        9-11              19-21           -                       400 °F (204 °C)[20]



91.00           6.000           3.000           -                       2                     6                     350 °F (177 °C)[20]



12.948        27.576        54.677        1                     58                  28                  450 °F (232 °C)[21]



25.900        17.800        51.900        1                     54                  19                  420 °F (216 °C)[21]


Flaxseed/Linseed (European)[22]

6 - 9              10 - 22        68 - 89        56 - 71        12 - 18        10 - 22        225 °F (107 °C)


14.00           72.00           14.00           <1.5              9–20            -                       380 °F (193 °C)[20]



49.300        37.000        9.300           -                       10                  40                  455 °F (235 °C)[23]



16.900        46.200        32.000        -                       32                  48                  437 °F (225 °C)[21]



(>70% linoleic)

8.00              15.00           75.00           -                       -                       -                       410 °F (210 °C)[20]



(high oleic)

7.541           75.221        12.820        -                       -                       -                       410 °F (210 °C)[20]



15.650        22.783        57.740        7                     50                  24                  460 °F (238 °C)[21]



(<60% linoleic)

10.100        45.400        40.100        0.200           39.800        45.300        440 °F (227 °C)[21]



(>70% oleic)

9.859           83.689        3.798           -                       -                       -                       440 °F (227 °C)[21]


Fully hydrogenated


Cottonseed (hydrog.)

93.600        1.529           .587                                      .287[19]


Palm (hydrogenated)

47.500        40.600        7.500                                                                                  

Soybean (hydrogen.)

21.100        73.700        .400              .096[19]


Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.

History in North America

While olive oil and other pressed oils have been around for millennia, Procter & Gamble researchers were innovators when they started selling cottonseed oil as a creamed shortening, in 1911.Ginning mills were happy to have someone haul away the cotton seeds. Procter & Gamble researchers learned how to extract the oil, refine it, partially hydrogenate it (causing it to be solid at room temperature and thus mimic natural lard), and can it under nitrogen gas. Compared to the rendered lard Procter & Gamble was already selling to consumers, Crisco was cheaper, easier to stir into a recipe, and could be stored at room temperature for two years without turning rancid. (Procter & Gamble sold their fats and oils brands – Jif and Crisco – to The J.M. Smucker Co. in 2002.)

Soybeans were an exciting new crop from China in the 1930s. Soy was protein-rich, and the medium viscosity oil was high in polyunsaturates. Henry Ford established a soybean research laboratory, developed soybean plastics and a soy-based synthetic wool, and built a car "almost entirely" out of soybeans.Roger Drackett had a successful new product with Windex, but he invested heavily in soybean research, seeing it as a smart investment. By the 1950s and 1960s, soybean oil had become the most popular vegetable oil in the US.

In the mid-1970s, Canadian researchers developed a low-erucic-acid rapeseed cultivar. Because the word "rape" was not considered optimal for marketing, they coined the name "canola" (from "Canada Oil low acid"). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved use of the canola name in January 1985, and U.S. farmers started planting large areas that spring. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats, and higher in monounsaturates and is a better source of omega-3 fats than other popular oils. Canola is very thin (unlike corn oil) and flavorless (unlike olive oil), so it largely succeeds by displacing soy oil, just as soy oil largely succeeded by displacing cottonseed oil.

Used oil

A large quantity of used vegetable oil is produced and recycled, mainly from industrial deep fryers in potato processing plants, snack food factories and fast food restaurants.

Recycled oil has numerous uses, including use as a direct fuel, as well as in the production of biodiesel, soap, animal feed, pet food, detergent, and cosmetics. It's traded as the commodity,yellow grease.

Since 2002, an increasing number of European Union countries have prohibited the inclusion of recycled vegetable oil from catering in animal feed. Used cooking oils from food manufacturing, however, as well as fresh or unused cooking oil, continue to be used in animal feed.

Negative health effects

Hydrogenated oils have been shown to cause what is commonly termed the "double deadly effect", raising the level of LDLs and decreasing the level of HDLs in the blood, increasing the risk of blood clotting inside blood vessels.

A high consumption of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in most types of vegetable oil (e.g. soybean oil, corn oil – the most consumed in USA, sunflower oil, etc.) may increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer. A similar effect was observed on prostate cancer and skin cancer in mice.

Vegetables oils high in polyunsaturated fatty acids cause inflammation of the cells and may lead to a digestive disease and eventually cancer. The main reason is that the polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils autooxidize during food processing when exposed to oxygen and/or UV radiation; resulting in the autoproduction of inflammatory peroxides and hydroperoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Product labeling

There is increasing concern,that the product labeling that includes "vegetable fat" or "vegetable oil" in its list of ingredients masks the identity of the fats or oils present. This has been made more pressing as concerns have been raised over the social and environmental impact of palm oil in particular, especially given the predominance of palm oil.

From 13th December 2014 all food products produced in the European Union will be legally required to indicate the specific vegetable oil used in their manufacture, following the introduction of the Food Information to Consumers Regulation

List of essential oils

Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. Essential oils are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. Essential oils are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques such as distillation (including steam distillation), cold pressing, or extraction (maceration). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.

•                     Agar oil or oodh, distilled from Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis). Highly prized for its fragrance.

•                     Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of Bishop's weed (Carum copticum). Oil contains 35-65%  thymol.

•                     Angelica root oil, distilled from the Angelica archangelica.

•                     Anise oil, from the Pimpinella anisum, rich odor of licorice, used medicinally.

•                     Asafoetida, used medicinally and to flavor food.

•                     Balsam oil, from the Myroxylon pereirae.

•                     Basil oil is used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy

•                     Bay oil is used in perfumery; Aromatherapeutic for sprains, colds, flu, insomnia, rheumatism.

•                     Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.

•                     Black Pepper essential oil is distilled from the berries of Piper nigrum. The warm, soothing effect makes it ideal for treating muscle aches, pains and strains.

•                     Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely usedFormerly used medicinally.

•                     Birch is aromatheapeutic for gout, Rheumatism, Eczema, Ulcers.

•                     Camphor is used for cold, cough, fever, rheumatism, and arthritis

•                     Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles.

•                     Caraway oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent.

•                     Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of Zingiberaceae (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc.

•                     Carrot seed oil (essential oil), used in aromatherapy.

•                     Cedarwood oil, primarily used in perfumes and fragrances.

•                     Chamomile oil, There are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy- Roman and German. Both have similar healing properties but German chamomile contains a higher level of azulin (an anti-inflammatory agent).

•                     Calamus Root, used medicinally

•                     Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring and medicinally.

•                     Cistus species

•                     Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent, as well as medicinally.

•                     Clary Sage

•                     Clove leaf oil, used as a topical anesthetic to relieve dental pain.

•                     Coffee, used to flavor food.

•                     Coriander

•                     Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), from the Tanacetum balsamita

•                     Costus Root, used medicinally

•                     Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry.

•                     Cubeb, used medicinally and to flavor foods.

•                     Cumin oil/Black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products. Also used in veterinary medicine.

•                     Cypress

•                     Cypriol

•                     Curry leaf, used medicinally and to flavor food.

•                     Davana oil, from the Artemisia pallens, used as a perfume ingredient and as a germicide.

•                     Dill oil, chemically almost identical to caraway seed oil. High carvone content.

•                     Elecampane, used medicinally.

•                     Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide. Commonly used in cough medicine, among other medicinal uses.

•                     Fennel seed oil, used medicinally, particularly for treating colic in infants.

•                     Fenugreek oil, used medicinally and for cosmetics from ancient times.

•                     Fir

•                     Frankincense oil, used for aromatherapy and in perfumes.

•                     Galangal, used medicinally and to flavor food.

•                     Galbanum

•                     Geranium oil, used medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy, used for hormonal imbalance, for this reason geranium is often considered to be "female" oil.

•                     Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures.

•                     Goldenrod

•                     Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene.

•                     Henna oil, used medicinally.

•                     Helichrysum

•                     Hickory nut oil

•                     Horseradish oil

•                     Hyssop

•                     Idaho Tansy

•                     Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance.

•                     Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor. Also used medicinally, including traditional medicine.

•                     Laurus nobilis

•                     Lavender oil, used primarily as a fragrance. Also used medicinally.

•                     Ledum

•                     Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used medicinally, as an antiseptic, and in cosmetics.

•                     Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highy fragrant grass from Bharat. In Bharat, it is used to help treat fevers and infections. The oil is very useful for insect repellent.

•                     Lime, anti septic, anti viral, astringent, aperitif, bactericidal, disinfectant, febrifuge, haemostatic, restorative and tonic.

•                     Litsea cubeba oil, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy.

•                     Mandarin

•                     Marjoram

•                     Melaleuca = Tea tree oil

•                     Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil used primarily medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy.

•                     Mentha arvensis oil/Mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications.

•                     Mountain Savory

•                     Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin.

•                     Mustard oil (essential oil), containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard

•                     Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell. Used medicinally.

•                     Myrtle

•                     Neem oil or Neem Tree Oil

•                     Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree.

•                     Nutmeg

•                     Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.

•                     Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol, making it a useful fungicide. Also used to treat digestive problems.

•                     Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris (Iris florentina) and used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally.

•                     Palo Santo

•                     Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men's fragrances.

•                     Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes.

•                     Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50-60% perillaldehyde.

•                     Pennyroyal oil, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage.

•                     Peppermint oil, used in a wide variety of medicinal applications.

•                     Petitgrain

•                     Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy.

•                     Ravensara

•                     Red Cedar

•                     Roman Chamomile

•                     Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, Used primarily as a fragrance.

•                     Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the Rosa rubiginosa or Rosa mosqueta. Used medicinally.

•                     Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of Rosmarinus officinalis. Used in aromatherapy, topically to sooth      muscles, and medicinal for its antibacterial and antifungal properties.

•                     Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications. Also used medicinally.

•                     Sage oil, used medicinally.

·                   The spice star anise is distilled to makestar anise oil

•                     Sandalwood oil, used primarily as a fragrance, for its pleasant, woody fragrance.

•                     Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, inter alia.

•                     Savory oil, from Satureja species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications.

•                     Schisandra oil, from Schisandra chinensis, used medicinally.

•                     Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications.

•                     Spikenard, used medicinally.

•                     Spruce has calming and elevating properties. It can be used as a topical application for muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, and rheumatism. Spruce Oil has also been used to improve breathing conditions of asthma, bronchitis, coughs, and general weakness.

•                     Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. 90% of the world's star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful foravian flu

•                     Tangerine

•                     Tarragon oil, distilled from Artemisia dracunculus, used medicinally.

•                     Tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia; promoted for medicinal use, but with limited evidence of effectiveness.

•                     Thyme oil, used medicinally.

•                     Tsuga belongs to the pine tree family. It is used as analgesic, antirheumatic, blood cleanser, and stimulant. It treats cough, respiratory conditions, kidney ailments, urinary infections.

•                     Turmeric, used medicinally and to flavor food

•                     Valerian is used for insomnia, migraines, nervous dyspepsia, and dandruff.

•                     Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from Bharat. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy

•                     Vetivert

•                     Western red cedar

•                     Wintergreen can be used as an analgesic, anodyne, anti rheumatic & anti arthritic, anti spasmodic, anti septic, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emenagogue and stimulant

•                     Yarrow oil is used medicinally, to relieve joint pain

•                     Ylang-ylang is used for calming, antiseptic, and aphrodisiac purposes, as well as hypertension and skin diseases.

•                     Zedoary, used medicinally and to flavor food



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